The ENACT case studies address three different application domains: Intelligent Transport System (INDRA, BOSC, EDI), Smart City and eHealth (TellU), and Smart Building (Tecnalia, ISRAA); all facing trustworthiness and actuation related concerns in terms of IoT adoption. These cases will validate ENACT technologies and demonstrate the general applicability of the ENACT enablers as well as their potential to boost the creation of trustworthy smart IoT systems.
Intelligent Transport System use case (INDRA, BOSC, EDI)
Train integrity control for maintenance and logistics services requires autonomous on-board solutions with no use of track-side resources. This domain is also an enabler for coexistence of freight and passenger transport. The Internet of Things has made us to think of services unimaginable just a few years ago. However, due to the particularities of the rail market - large infrastructures and rolling stock are needed to cover safety certifications, expensive field tests, etc. Thus, the design and deployment of IoT services in this domain are currently difficult, slow and costly. Applying ENACT, we intend to assess the feasibility of IoT services in the domain of train integrity control, in particular for the maintenance and logistics of the rolling stock and the on-track equipment. The objective is to materialize the huge potential combining next generation IoT architecture and platforms with cloud resources.
EDI and BOSC will provide 100+ node wireless sensor modules (WSM) TestBed, focusing on logistic and maintenance for rail, that will be used for the rapid development, modelling, emulation, and validation of the IoT system which is based on SOFIA2. We need to guarantee the trustworthiness of the system before deployment on a real train. After laboratory tests, the overall system will be tested, validated and assessed in real-life mock-up demonstration on a tourist train controlling the integrity of a train by monitoring the completeness of a train composition. The demonstrator is a touristic train (a 750mm narrow gauge train) located in the region of Latvia - Vidzeme (see Figure 5). The train connects the towns of Gulbene and Aluksne (34km) on daily bases. Putting this WSM Demonstrator on this train is allowed (coherent) and it can stay on the rolling stock as long as necessary for testing and demonstrating purposes.
The touristic train will allow test both functionality of the system in conditions similar to freight trains (no power supply, no electrical wiring thought the train) and functionality in case of detaching one or more carriages. The on-board signalling system of the train must include a function that verifies train integrity with a very high degree of dependability. The devices involved will be:
- Gateway: one Gateway to manage all Wireless Sensor Nodes (WSN).
- End device connected to sensors: initially up to 3 different WSNs will be installed along the train. Each WSN has a WSN propagator node. This end device will be directly connected to sensors or to any other systems that helps to verify train integrity.
- Energy harvesting: energy harvesting devices are also connected to the wireless end devices, so, it is expected to install the same number of energy harvesting devices than the amount of end devices.
Needs for ENACT:
In short, the IoT services for the maintenance and logistics of the rolling stock and the on-track equipment will work as follows. The rail IoT providers maintains a set of on-track equipment which publish field data and host third-party business logic, so that the rail IoT system developers can make their own services on top of them. Such rail IoT services may comprise sensing and actuation and will typically run across both on- track equipment and cloud resources.
The development of such rail IoT systems is challenging. On the one hand, we need to support an agile development process so that developers can easily and quickly implement their ideas on the on-track platform, and also react to the evolution of on-track devices. On the other hand, the rail control systems are extremely safety-critical. The services delivered by the third parties must be trustworthy from the perspective of reliability, robustness, safety and data privacy, before they can be executed on board. The ultimate goal is that these new IoT services based on wireless devices will provide a level of trustworthiness that is sufficient to compete with cabled solutions. This demands new development methods and tools proposed by ENACT. ENACT will help INDRA, BOSC and EDI in addressing the aforementioned challenges by:
Enabling the agile development of logistic and maintenance of smart Rail IoT services, based on the ENACT risk-driven selection and orchestration approach.
Constructing a powerful environment for simulation and testing of smart Rail IoT services, in order to guarantee the trustworthiness of these services before deploying them to the on-board system.
Enabling predictive maintenance and increasing safety of Rail IoT services using the context data that cannot be obtained by wired sensors, based on the ENACT trustworthiness toolkit.
Increasing the operational efficiency by permanently and remotely monitoring the status and position of key elements of the rolling stock and the on-track equipment, perform proper reaction based on notifications and actuators end exploiting cloud resources for advanced processing and learning.
Some important issues that must be taken into account to develop the demonstrator:
There are very few basic train safety systems in active use by the tourist train, which is also beneficial in context of prototype demonstrations.
Signalling is provided manually using standard public voice GSM network, likewise Traffic lights are controlled manually according to voice messages received using standard GSM network. We can emulate more advanced signalling and traffic light control for demonstration purposes.
Smart city and e-health use case (TellU)
TelluCloud is a cloud based IoT platform collecting, processing and acting on data from IoT devices. It is currently used in smart city contexts in particular in the communal care and e-health domains, mainly to transport data from devices and to external services such as an alarm centre or an electronic patient journal (EPJ). In ENACT we aim to exploit much more of the potential in IoT, edge and cloud services, adding more devices, actuation, distributed processing and better exploitation of collected data.
Part of TelluCloud’s strength is to be flexible – i.e., to be able to customise a deployment to the needs of individual users, integrating the specific sensor devices, gateways, etc., which are relevant to the user needs and setting up tailored service logic. The basic premise of the ENACT use case is that a primary user has a need for some form of medical or personal monitoring in their home. TellU does business with many municipalities and other care providers, producers of devices and providers of relevant services, and we will engage some of these in the realization of the use case. In this case study, the local infrastructure will consist of a set of devices and a home gateway. Devices will include safety alarm, fall detector, door sensor, bed pressure sensor, motion detection, blood pressure meter, glucose meter and scales. The services to be developed as part of this use case will also include actuators that will be used to draw end users attention in specific situations (e.g., displaying messages on the TV, guiding usage through medical devices, changing light intensity etc.). The devices for a home will be connected to a home gateway, which in turn is connected to TelluCloud that serves numerous homes. For scalability validation, we will combine real nodes with simulation of thousands of nodes. Some data processing and filtering should be performed at the edges, so that only higher-level events are sent to the cloud, avoiding sending large streams of data not needed over the internet. For increased robustness and resilience with regards to loss of the internet connection, we also want to make some decisions locally. Moreover, External services such as alarm center and EPJ will be integrated.
Needs for ENACT:
A central challenge related to the case study is the privacy and security of data. The use case will involve various forms of sensitive data. This can include personalia registered in the system, indoor or outdoor location, alarms, and medical measurements such as blood pressure and blood glucose levels. These are sensitive data, and the system needs to both adhere to governmental rules and regulations and have the full trust of the users. The new General Registry of Data Protection (GRDP) EU regulation will come into full effect in 2018. To be allowed to process medical data, a system will also need CE certification. The mechanisms and user interfaces for managing data access needs to be clear and concise and we need end to end access control. Access should be coupled to context dependency, for example to make certain information more widely available in the case when an alarm has been triggered.
Trustworthiness is also related to other factors than security and privacy. The system needs to function as expected and in a timely manner, even when technical problems occur, or fail gracefully when that is the only option. Rules for actuation must behave as expected, and potential conflicts resolved according to some priorities, e.g., it may be a low priority rule to turn down the lights at night, while turning lights on when leaving the bed (e.g., to reduce risk of falling) has a higher priority. Alarms (e.g., in case of a fall) must be relayed in a timely and robust manner. Finally, it is also currently very time-consuming and resource- intensive to extend our services with new sensors and actuators. We urgently need better tools and a more agile development and operation process for this.
Realizing the potential of ENACT solutions in TelluCloud is important to keep the competitive edge and increase market shares. ENACT DevOps is therefore strategically important for TellU, in particular:
- The ENACT Continuous delivery toolkit will support the integration of more devices and data sources in an agile way, with service logic which combines data from multiple sources to make decisions and can be distributed across IoT, edge and cloud spaces.
Thanks to the ENACT toolkits for Continuous delivery and Agile Operation, TelluCloud will make more use of feedback loops, where the combined data leads to more automated actuation.
The ENACT toolkit for security and privacy monitoring and control (in particular the context-aware access control) will support novel and more extensive use of data, giving access to secondary and tertiary users where relevant and authorised by the primary user. The system needs to both adhere to rules and regulations, such as the new General Registry of Data Protection (GRDP) EU regulation, and have the full trust of the users.
The ENACT enablers for robustness and resilience and for the security and privacy will increase end users trust in TelluCloud.
Smart Building use case (Tecnalia, ISRAA)
This use case will explore and validate ENACT in the domain of Smart Buildings - i.e., smart IoT systems that make use of Smart Building sensors, actuators and services. To this aim, the use case will develop Smart Energy Efficiency applications and Smart Elderly Care applications that will be tested in a test Smart Building named KUBIK. The use case will simulate a care centre: small apartments where a group of elderly people live together. This care centre has sensors and actuators installed that monitor and control the environment (people is not directly monitored; only the environment), in order to ensure the safety of the facilities (e.g., smoke, water or gas leak detection, air quality monitoring), to perform energy efficiency measures (e.g.; efficient lighting and ventilation/temperature control) and also to support the care-takers in assessing the wellbeing of users (e.g., sleep quality monitoring, wandering and fall detection). In order to ensure the quality of the simulated environment, to validate the results and to make sure that it meets real end-user requirements, ISRAA, as a first user, will take part in defining requirements and doing assessment.
The KUBIK test facility is a three floors building owned by Tecnalia and designed for testing and research. It includes more than 700 sensors and actuators, central Building Management System (BMS), local Renewable Energy Systems RES (RES), local weather station and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) equipment on-site. KUBIK provides the required equipment and well-known boundary conditions in the context of the ENACT project. The singularity of KUBIK is that it allows for the validation of the coexistence of different types of smart IoT applications on top of the same smart IoT environment, i.e., both Smart Elderly Care and Smart Energy Efficiency applications will share (parts of) the Smart Building infrastructure. This will allow us for testing both intra and inter application sensor and actuation conflict problems as well as multiple orchestration combinations.
Needs for ENACT:
In this complex IoT environment, the diversity and number of the things make it crucial the efficient and trustworthy management of the resources and data, so as multiple smart IoT applications can coexist and be operated by different actors, if needed. By leveraging the ENACT DevOps Studio, TECNALIA and ISRAA will be able to develop a secure and trustworthy IoT environment on top of which smart systems and services can be developed to make use of the device architecture capacities for different purposes. In particular, the IoT environment will especially benefit from the following ENACT achievements.
The risk-driven selection and orchestration of devices and IoT services will be used at design time in order to identifying the proper sensors and actuators from the large choices in the smart building.
The analysis and handling of conflicts between sensors and actuators, at both design- and run-time, will be applied both within and across smart building applications.
The context-aware security and privacy mechanisms will be applied in the application development to guarantee the trustworthiness.
The advanced run-time adaptation, monitoring and online testing enablers will be used to ensure the trustworthiness of multiple smart IoT systems running simultaneously with shared devices.